High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
|High performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) is one mode of chromatography, the most widely used analytical technique. Chromatographic processes can be defined as separation techniques involving mass-transfer between stationary and mobile phases.
(e.g. It is used to quantify the amount of organic pollutants in waste water)
Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer
|Infrared spectrometer can be used to identify materials, determine the composition of mixtures, monitor the course and extent of reactions, and provide information helpful in deducing molecular structure. Analysis is based on the fact that molecules have specific frequencies associated with internal vibrations of groups of atoms. FT-IR spectrometer employs an interferometer in place of a monochromator mostly used in dispersive infrared spectrometer.(e.g. It can be used to analyse the concentration of SO2 in air)
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
|Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a technique for determining the concentration of elements in solution. AAS is specific and characteristic for each element.
(e.g. It can be used to determine the amount of heavy metal in industrial sewage up to ppm level)
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
|Complex volatile mixtures can be separated by
gas chromatography (GC) and analyzed by Mass Spectrometry (MS). It is usually the first analytical choice of quantitation of mixtures of the more volatile organic compounds.
(e.g. It can be used to quantify and identify organic compounds such as pesticides in wastewater)
The broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum finds
its principal application in quantitative analysis of materials as neat
liquids, dilute solutions, films and powders. The ultraviolet and visible
regions of the spectrum provide information about the electronic
structure, especially for aromatic and transition metal compounds
(e.g. It can be used to measure the decolourization of dyes)
Supercritical Fluid Extraction System (SFES)
Supercritical fluid extraction is a method whereby supercritical fluids, instead of normal liquids, are used as extraction solvents. It has been shown that SFE with supercritical carbon dioxide can be far superior to conventional methods of extraction (such as liquid-liquid or Soxhlet
extraction) in a variety of ways
(e.g. It can be used to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil samples).
X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF)
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is simple and nondestructive method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elemental composition on a wide range of materials. The method is extremely useful because of the ease of sample preparation and because of its ability to detect and analyze elements down to aluminum and, under certain circumstances, to boron.
Ion Chromatography (IC)
Ion chromatography (IC) is used for the qualitative
and quantitative analysis of ionic components in complex matrices. IC is a
liquid chromatographic technique in which the primary mode of separation
involves an ion-exchange mechanism. It allows the separation and detection
of trace ionic species such as F-, Br-, NO3-, SO3- and SO42- etc
(e.g. It can be used to determine the amount of trace anions in high-purity waters in the electric power generation industry).
- Gamma counter
- Total organic carbon analyzer
- R-Scintillation spectrometer
- ASE system for organic compounds
- Liquid scintillation counter
- Total air system
- Microplate spectrophotometer
- Coulter cell counter
- Automated DNA sequencing system