|| Appendix B
Proper use of online resources
Apart from printed material such as books and journals, source material from online resources should also be properly acknowledged in academic writing.
Mild cases of failure to acknowledge would be regarded as poor academic writing.
Serious cases of failure to acknowledge, especially where there
appears to be the intention to mislead the reader about the originality,
would constitute plagiarism.
The following examples are based on the APA style; different disciplines and
style systems may differ slightly. Again the most important point
about citing electronic source materials is not the format per
se but the inclusion of all information necessary for identifying
the source being cited. There is one important difference from printed works. The same web site (as identified by its URL) may change its contents from day to day; therefore the date of retrieval should always be included.
For further guide on APA style, see:
Reference Examples for Electronic Source Materials. APA Style.org.
- Article in an Internet-only journal
B. (2005, April). The democratic divide. First
Monday, 10 (4).
Retrieved April 30, 2005, from http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_4/birdsall/index.html
- Article in an online newspaper
Appleby, Julie. (2005, April 29). Medical
costs prove a burden even for some with insurance. USA
Retrieved April 29, 2005, from http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/health/2005-04-28-medical-bills-usat_x.htm
- Article in an online magazine, no author identified
(2005, April 14). Hale and
healthy. The Economist. Retrieved April 16, 2005, from http://www.economist.com/science/displayStory.cfm?story_id=3860425
- Webpage with author name but no date
McAdoo, Oliver. (n.d.). In the Matrix, which
pill would you take, the red or the blue? Retrieved April 16,
2005, from http://www.arrod.co.uk/essays/matrix.php
- Webpage, no author identified, no date
GVU's 8th WWW user survey.
(n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/
(Note: If the author of a document is not
identified, begin the reference with the title of the document.)
- Document available on university program or department
web site, or other complex websites from private or public
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., Nix,
D. H. (1993). Technology
and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining
educational futures. Retrieved August
24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies
web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html
(Note: If a document is contained within a
large and complex web site (such as that for a university or
a government agency), identify the host organization and the
relevant program or department before giving the URL for the
document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.)
- Electronic copy of a journal article, three to five authors,
retrieved from database
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler,
S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White,
L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor
performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved
23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database.
(Note: When referencing
material obtained by searching an aggregated database, follow
the format appropriate
to the work retrieved and add a retrieval statement that gives
the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database.)
- Electronic copy of a newspaper or magazine article, retrieved
Leung, Ambrose. (2005, April 29). Tsang getting
ready to stand. South
China Morning Post. Retrieved April 30,
2005, from WiseNews database.
Reference can also be made to the following two online sources for the proper
use and examples of online resources in academic writing:
- Sources - Their Use and Acknowledgement by Dartmouth College
- A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA)
Documentation - Materials from Electronic, Online Resources,
by Capital Community College
Reference may also be made to the book Effective Writing: A Guide for Social Science Students written by Dr. Pedro Ng, published by the Chinese University Press, 2003.