There are two levels in acknowledging source material.
- The last section explained cases for which source material must be acknowledged.
- This section explains how an acknowledgement can be presented.
1. Numbered references
2. Harvard style
3. Citation in the text
4. Information for each discipline
Numbers are not used. Instead references are cited and ordered by the name of the
author and the year of publication. Examples:
The laws of motion were first given by a long time ago (Newton,
1687), while the extension to high speeds was first proposed by
Einstein, A (1905). Ann. Phys. (Germany), 17, 891-921.
Newton, I (1687). Philosophiae Naturalis
Principia Mathematica, 1st ed.
(Streater, London); see also the modern English translation, A Motte
(later revised by A Cajori), Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural
Philosophy (Univ of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1934; paperback
In this example note that "Einstein" is part of the sentence, so the name is
not repeated inside the brackets.
Social members experience various modes of control exerted over them.
According to Berger, "Where human beings
live or work in compact groups, in which they are personally known and
to which they are tied by feeling of personal loyalty (the kind that sociologists
call primary groups), very potent and simultaneously very subtle mechanisms
of control are constantly brought to bear upon the actual or potential
deviant. These are the mechanisms of persuasion, ridicule, gossip and
opprobrium" (Berger 1991:87).
Berger, Peter (1991). Invitation to Sociology. London: Penguin
在我們傳統裏群的極限是模糊不清的‘天下’..... 界線從來就是不清不楚的，..... 所以可以著手的，具體的只有己 .....」（費孝通
- Sometimes the page number is given immediately when the source is cited;
see the second and third examples above.
- The list of references is placed at the end of the article (endnote) and
not at the end of each page.
- The list of references is ordered by the name of the (first) author, with
family name written first; the year of publication always comes next.
- Usually a hanging format is adopted, so that the name of the (first) author
- If the name of the author already occurs in the text, then it is not repeated
in the bracket; see the reference to Einstein in the above example.
- A publication by several co-authors is cited as, e.g.,
|Nucleosynthesis was studied more than 50 years ago
(Alpher, Bethe and Gamow, 1948).
- When there are more than three co-authors, name only the first and cite
the others as "et al."
| The hypothesis was further studied by a large collaboration
(Alpher et al., 1950).
- If several sources from the same author and the same year are cited, they
are distinguished by a, b, c, ..
|Einstein published three important papers in one year:
on relativity (Einstein, 1905a), brownian
motion (Einstein, 1905b) and the photoelectric
effect (Einstein, 1905c).