Liu Xihong (late Qing dynasty)

A native of Panyu in Guangdong province, he received his juren degree in 1848. His ability to suppress bands of marauding robbers brought him to the attention of the officials he served. When Guo was appointed minister to Britain, Liu was given the post of vice-minister and instructed to monitor Guo's performance and made direct reports to the throne. In 1878, as a reward for his monitoring of Guo, he was made China's first minister to Germany. He was summoned back to China in 1879, and was dismissed from office in 1881. His diplomatic journal, Personal Records of Travels in Britain, was his only published work.