Xia Mianzun [real name Xia Zhu] 1886-1946

Xia came from a middle-class family in Zhejiang province. He passed the first degree in the traditional civil service examination system while still in his teens, shortly before that system was abolished. With his father's support, Xia made several starts on a formal education in the 'new learning', and went to study in Japan. These attempts were cut short for financial reasons. However, he made use of the Japanese language he had learned to read Western literature in Japanese translation. His subsequent career in China consisted of teaching in middle schools and teacher training colleges, editing for publishers, running magazines, and writing and translating. He was highly respected for his work in education and appears to have been universally thought a good man. He died of consumption in Shanghai. .