Section 3
Citation styles

There are two levels in acknowledging source material.

  • The last section explained cases for which source material must be acknowledged.
  • This section explains how an acknowledgement can be presented.

1. Numbered references
2. Harvard style
3. Citation in the text
4. Information for each discipline

Section 3-2

Harvard style

Numbers are not used. Instead references are cited and ordered by the name of the author and the year of publication. Examples:

The laws of motion were first given by a long time ago (Newton, 1687), while the extension to high speeds was first proposed by Einstein (1905).

Einstein, A (1905). Ann. Phys. (Germany), 17, 891-921.
Newton, I (1687). Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, 1st ed. (Streater, London); see also the modern English translation, A Motte (later revised by A Cajori), Sir Isaac Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Univ of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1934; paperback 1962).

In this example note that "Einstein" is part of the sentence, so the name is not repeated inside the brackets.

Social members experience various modes of control exerted over them. According to Berger, "Where human beings live or work in compact groups, in which they are personally known and to which they are tied by feeling of personal loyalty (the kind that sociologists call primary groups), very potent and simultaneously very subtle mechanisms of control are constantly brought to bear upon the actual or potential deviant. These are the mechanisms of persuasion, ridicule, gossip and opprobrium" (Berger 1991:87).

Berger, Peter (1991). Invitation to Sociology. London: Penguin


在西洋社會裏,國家社會這個團體是一個明顯的也是唯一特出的群己界線。在國家裏做人民的無所逃於這團體之外,..... 在我們傳統裏群的極限是模糊不清的‘天下’..... 界線從來就是不清不楚的,..... 所以可以著手的,具體的只有己 .....」(費孝通 1986:28)



  • Sometimes the page number is given immediately when the source is cited; see the second and third examples above.

  • The list of references is placed at the end of the article (endnote) and not at the end of each page.

  • The list of references is ordered by the name of the (first) author, with family name written first; the year of publication always comes next.

  • Usually a hanging format is adopted, so that the name of the (first) author stands out.

  • If the name of the author already occurs in the text, then it is not repeated in the bracket; see the reference to Einstein in the above example.

  • A publication by several co-authors is cited as, e.g.,
    Nucleosynthesis was studied more than 50 years ago (Alpher, Bethe and Gamow, 1948).

  • When there are more than three co-authors, name only the first and cite the others as "et al."
    The hypothesis was further studied by a large collaboration (Alpher et al., 1950).

  • If several sources from the same author and the same year are cited, they are distinguished by a, b, c, ..
    Einstein published three important papers in one year: on relativity (Einstein, 1905a), brownian motion (Einstein, 1905b) and the photoelectric effect (Einstein, 1905c).

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