Focused Research Themes
Human Tumor Virology
Gut Microbiota & Microbiome
Antimicrobial Resistance and Antibiotic Stewardship
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Other Streptococci
HPV Research & Education Consortium @ CU Medicine
Focused Research Theme - Antimicrobial Resistance and Antibiotic Stewardship
Antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the healthcare setting and in the community is a global concern worldwide. A multidisciplinary research group was formed in early 2000s, initially in response to the emergence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which became endemic in many hospitals in Asia Pacific region. In recent years, community-acquired MRSA as well as a number of MDROs which are resistant to virtually all currently available drugs are becoming prevalent. The CUHK Department of Microbiology has a strong interest in understanding the mechanisms of spread of these resistant organisms and their resistance determinants, and exploring new strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance.
Group Leader: Prof. Margaret Ip
Members: Dr. Irene Ang
Ms. Sau Lai Lui (affiliated to ICM, CUHK)
Mr. Norman Lo
Mr. Chris Wong  (PhD student)
Mr. Wang Zheng (PhD student)
Ongoing research topics:
Mechanisms of resistance determinants and spread of these determinants.
Use of animal models to study pathogenicity of bacteria.
Bacterial genomics and transcriptomes to study phylogenetics and evolution of MRSA, regulatory mechanisms of resistance and virulence.
Molecular typing methods for MRSA and other MDROs.
New and alternative treatment options.
  1. Chan BCL, Ip M, Gong HS, Lui SL, See RH,  Jolivalt C, Fung KP, Leung PC, Reiner NE,  Lau CBS. Synergistic effects of diosmetin with erythromycin against ABC transporter over-expressed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) RN4220/pUL5054 and inhibition of MRSA pyruvate kinase” has been accepted by Phytomedicine (2013, in press).
  2. You JHS, Chan CY, Wong MY, Ip M. Active Surveillance and Decolonization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on Admission to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Hong Kong- A Cost-effectiveness Analysis Infect Cont Hosp Epid 2012;33:1024-30. Epub 2012 Aug 27. PMID:22961022.
  3. Hon KL, Wang SS, Lee KK, Lee VW, Leung TF, Ip M. Combined antibiotic/corticosteroid cream in the empirical treatment of moderate-to-severe eczema: friend or foe? J Drugs Dermatol 2012;11:861-4.
  4. Chan BCL, Yu H, Wong CW, Lui SL Jolivalt C, Ganem-Elbaz C, Paris JM, Morleo B, Litaudon M, Lau CBS, Ip M, Fung KP, Leung PC, Han QB. Quick identification of kuraridin, a noncytotoxic anti-MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) agent from Sophora flavescens using high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatography B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci  2012, 880:157-162. Epub 2011 Dec 2.
  5. Chan BCL, Ip M , Lau CBS, Lui SL, Jolivalt C, Ganem-Elbaze C, Litaudon M, Reiner NE, Gong HS, See RH, Fung KP, Leung PC. Synergistic effects of baicalein with ciprofloxacin against NorA over-expressed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and inhibition of MRSA pyruvate kinase. J Ethnopharmacology, 2011;137:767-773.  doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.06.039.
  6. Monecke S, Akpaka P, Borg M, Chow H, Coleman DC , Coombs G, Ip M, Jatzwauk L, Jones D, Kadlec K, Kearns A, Laurent F, O’Brien FG , Pearson J, Ruppelt A, Schwarz S, Scicluna E, Shore A, Slickers P, Ta HL, Weber S, Ehricht R. A field guide to pandemic, epidemic and sporadic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PLoS One 2011;6:e17936.
  7. You JHS, Mak MMW, To LYT, Ip M*. Complicated Infections with Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus In Hong Kong. J Hosp Infect 2011;78:71-2. Epub 2011 Feb 12.
  8. You JHS, Chow SSL, Lui JWW, Ip M. New target concentrations for vancomycin in Hong Kong. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2011;37:83-4. Epub 2010 Nov 11.
  9. Ip M*, Chau SSL, Lui SL, Leung E, Ling T. Vancomycin MICs for MRSA in Hong Kong. IntJ Antimicrob Agents, 2010;36:383-384.
  10. Nübel U, Roumagnac P , Feldkamp M , Song JH, Ko KS, Huang YC, Coombs G, Ip M, Westh H, Skov R, Struelens MJ, Goering RV, Strommenger B, Weller A, Witte W, Achtman M. Frequent emergence and limited geographic dispersal of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Proc Nat Acad Sci, USA 2008;105: 14130-14135.
  11. You JHS, Ip DNC, Wong CTN, Ling T, Lee N, Ip M*.MRSA Bacteremia in Hong Kong. J Hosp Infect 2008;70:379-381.
  12. Hon KLE, Leung AKC, Kong AYF, Leung TF, Ip M. Atopic Dermatitis complicated by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection. J Nat Med Asso 2008; 100:797-800.
  13. Lee N, Cockram CS, Lui G, Lam R, Lam E, Lai R, Ip M*.  A Community Case of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection. Emerging Infect Dis 2006; 12: 172-174.
  14. Hon KLE, MCA Lam, TF Leung, WYC Kam, MCA Li, Ip M, TF Fok. Clinical features associated with nasal Staphylococcus aureus colonization in Chinese children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore, 2005; 34: 602-605.
  15. Ip M*, Yung RWH, Ng TK, Luk WK, Tse C, Hung P, Enright M, Lyon DJ. Contemporary Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones in Hong Kong. J Clin Microbiol, 2005;43: 5069-5073.
  16. Ip M*, Lyon DJ, Chio F, Cheng AFB. Longitudinal analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a Hong Kong Teaching Hospital. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2004, 25:126-129.
  17. Ip M*, Lyon DJ, Chio F, Enright M, Cheng AF. Characterization of Hong Kong isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by Phage Typing, Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Fluorescent amplified-fragment length polymorphism analysis (FAFLP). J Clin Microbiol 2003, 41: 4980-4985.
  18. Ip M*. Review: Update on Bacterial Skin Infections – Community acquired Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Hong Kong Journal of Dermatology & Venereology, 2007.
On other bacteria:
  1. Clinical and economic outcomes of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia in Hong Kong. J Hosp Infect (2013, submitted).
  2. Lee CC, Lui G, Ip M, Ling TKW, Lee N. Frequent Detection of Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance (qnr) Genes in Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Blood Isolates, Hong Kong. EurJ Clin Microbiol & InfectDis 2012;31:3183-9. doi: 10.1007/s10096-012-1683-x. Epub 2012 Jun 29.
  3. Siu LK, Fung CP, Chang FY, Lee N, Yeh KM, Koh TH*, Ip M*. Molecular typing and virulence analysis among serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from liver abscess patients and stool carriage from non-infectious subjects in Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:3761-3765. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00977-11
  4. Lam PKN, Tian Q, Ip M, Gomersall CD. .Effect of Pre-exposure on In vitro Adsorption of Amikacin by Polyacrylonitrile Hemofilter. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011;55:3641.
  5. Hui D, Ip M, Ling T, Chang, S-C; Liao CH, Yoo C-G, Udompanich V, Muttalif R, Roa C,  Soepandi P, Mangunnegoro H, Liu H, Kim DK, Yoon HI, Mogmeud S, Salleh A, Mendoza M, Fajardo-Ang C, Isbaniah F, Burhan E. A multicentre surveillance study on the characteristics, bacterial etiologies and in-vitro antibiotic susceptibilities in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD. Respirology 2011;16:532-539.
  6. KJ, Ip M, Ker HB, Mendoza M, Hsu L, Kiratisin P, Chongthaleong A, Redjeki IS, Quintana A, Flamm R, Garcia J, Cassettari M, Cooper D, Okolo P, Morrissey I. In vitro activity of doripenem and other carbapenems against contemporary gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospitalised patients in the Asia-Pacific Region: Results of the COMPACT Asia Pacific Study. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2010; 36:501-6.
  7. Wong GKC, Ip M, Poon WS, Mak CWK, Ng RY. Antibiotics-impregnated ventricular catheter versus Systemic antibiotics for prevention of nosocomial cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and non-CSF infections: A prospective randomized clinical trial. Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 2010;81:1064-7. 
  8. You JHS, Chow TCP, Yeung AWC, Lee N, Ip M*. Acinetobacter baumannii bacteraemia in Hong Kong. J Hosp Infect 2010;75:81. Epub 2010 Mar 29.
  9. Lam PKN, Tian Q, Ip M, Gomersall CD.. In vitro adsorption of gentamicin and netilmicin by polyacrylonitrile and polyamide hemofiltration filters. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010;54:963 - 965.
  10. Broughton EI, Ip M, Coles CL, Walker DG. Hospital costs and lengths of stay associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant salmonella infections in Hong Kong. J Public Health 2010;32:165-72.
  11. You JHS, Mok SSM, Chang CCM, Lee N, Ip M*. Bacteraemia with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases-producing Escherichia coli in Hong Kong. Int J AntimicrobAgents. 2009;34:605-616.
  12. Tian Q, Gomersall CD, Ip M, Tan PE, Joynt GM, Choi GYS. Adsorption of amikacin: a significant mechanism of elimination by hemofiltration. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemother 2008;52:1009-13.
  13. You JHS, Kei HW, Lau WC, Wong KY, Marasinghe T, Lee N, Ip M*. Are beta-lactams related to higher morbidity and mortality in urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum B-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli? J HospInfect, 2008;68:181-3.
  14. You JHS, Lo LPY, Chung IYK, Marasinghe T, Lee N, Ip M*, Effect of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme on the use of Carbapenems in a Hong Kong Teaching Hospital – A Pilot Study. J Hosp Infect 2007,65:378-9.
  15. M*, Lui SL, Chau SSL, Lung I, Burd A. The Prevalence of Resistance to Silver in a Burns Unit. J Hosp Infect 2006; 63: 342-344.
  16. Ip M*, Lui SL, Poon VKM,
  17. Lung I,  Burd A. Antimicrobial Activities of Silver Dressings – an In Vitro Comparison.  J Med Microbiol 2006; 55(Pt  1): 59-63.
  18. Ip M, Au C, Cheung SW, Chan CY and Cheng AFB. A rapid high performance liquid chromatographic assay for the new B-lactams. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1998;42:121-3.
  19. Li PKT, M Ip, MC Law, CC Szeto, CB Leung, TYH Wong, KKL Ho, AYM Wang, SF Lui, AWY Yu, DJ Lyon, AFB Cheng, KN Lai. Use of intraperitoneal cefepime as monotherapy in treatment of CAPD peritonitis. Peritoneal Dialysis International; 2000; 20: 232-241.
  20. Ip M. Antimicrobial Resistance – The Challenge Ahead. Topical Update – The Hong Kong College of Pathologists, Newsletter 2009;1:4-7.
  21. Ip M. Antibiotic Resistance: the Local Scenario. Bulletin of the Hong Kong Society for Infectious Diseases, 2007: Mar, vol.11.No.1 .
  22. Ip M. Moxifloxacin. Medical Progress 2001; 28: 45-48.  
  23. Ip M. ABCs of Antimicrobial Resistance. Hong Kong Medical Diary 2003; 8: 8-11.
Book Chapters
Chapter title: “Role of medicinal herbs in treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) infections.” Chan BCL, Ip M, Lau CBS, Han QB, Jolivalt C, Paris JM, Reiner NE, See RH, Fung KP, Leung PC. Book title: Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants; vol. 34, 2012. (

Chapter title: “Chinese medicinal herbs against antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens.” Book title: “Science against microbial pathogens: communicating current research and technological advances” Chan BCL, Lau CBS, Jolivalt C, Lui SL, Ganem-Elbaz C, Paris JM, Litaudon M, Fung KP, Leung PC and Ip M *. 2012, Publisher: Formatex Research Center (

Chapter 16: Antimicrobial Dressings. Ip M*. Book title: “Advanced Wound Repair Therapies “  Woodhead Publishing - Edited by David Farrar & Bryan Greener, 2012.